Updated Assessment of Several Avian Species from Peru in the Context of their Elevational Extents, Reproductive Period and Taxonomy

Adrian Gaylon Cook*
Waycross College, Waycross, Georgia, 31503, USA

© 2012 Adrian Gaylon Cook

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Waycross College, Waycross, Georgia, 31503, USA; Tel: 912-550-8694; Fax: 912-449-7614; E-mails:


Reported here are primary avian geographical records for the nation of Peru and for the western declivity of the Peruvian Andes. Not previously encountered anywhere in Peru is Myrmeciza exsul (Chestnut-backed Antbird), a periorbitally blue thamnophilid possessing apically maculate tectrices. This species was observed on the western inclination of the Andean Mountains in Peru. Recorded primally on the occidental Andean declivity of Peru were (1) a representative of Myiodynastes manifesting a flavous coronal vitta that is centrally ardent (Golden-crowned Flycatcher); (2) an emberizid (Chlorospingus) exhibiting a flavous throat and flavescent crissum (Yellow-throated Bush-Tanager); (3) a small cardinalid (Piranga leucoptera, White-winged Tanager) possessing fasciate alae; and (4) examples of a congener of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis), the females of which possess a nigrous pileum. The geographic distribution of M. exsul and the ranges of the other four species on the occidental Andean inclination are extended australly. In addition, the distribution of the races of Myiodynastes chrysocephalus (Golden-crowned Flycatcher) is clarified. Observations of the picid and the tyrannid occurred at elevations below those had been recorded for these taxa. I differentiate each of the five taxa from related taxa in Ecuador and Peru, and delineate their geographic distributions, elevational extents, vagility, and reproductive periods.

Keywords: Updated assessment, new records, birds, Tumbes, Peru, systematics, biogeography.