Description of New American Carduelis/Spinus Bird Species in La Paz (Bolivia): C./S. lapazensis.

Antonio Arnaiz-Villena1, *, Valentín Ruiz-del-Valle1, Fabio Suarez-Trujillo1, Adrian Lopez-Nares1, Alvaro Callado1, Eduardo Gomez-Casado2, Estefania Crespo-Yuste1, Cristina Campos1
1 Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, University Complutense,, Madrid, Spain
2 Department of Biotechnology, INIA, Madrid, Spain

© 2020 Arnaiz-Villena et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, University Complutense, Madrid, Spain; Tel: +34 913941632; +34 606993161; E-mails:, and



South American siskins (Genus Carduelis/Spinus) are the outcome of regional evolutionary radiation from an extant (or other extinct) species: C. notata, a North America siskin, which thrives in Mexico subtropical areas and is parental of one of the three described North American siskin radiations.


Speciation and/or subspeciation of this South American siskin radiation have probably occurred during Pleistocene Epoch. In the present paper, a new species/subspecies akin to C./S. atrata is described by genetic and phenotypic parameters: this new species/subspecies was previously considered a subspecies of C./S. xanthogastra, which thrives further North and is separated about 1,762 km, 1,094 miles, from this described subspecies, Carduelis/ Spinus xanthogastra stejnegeri.


Our genetic study using mt cyt b, phenotypic and behavior observations show that this putative C./S. xanthogastra subspecies is either a different species or a C./S.atrata subspecies; we have proposed a provisional name for this finch, C./S. lapazensis, instead of C./S. x. stejnegeri.


Species definition is movable and controversial, and it is uncertain in South American siskins, which all show a close genetic and phenotypical relationship, which may be still immersed in speciation processes since Pleistocene Epoch.

Keywords: Songbirds, Finches, Serinus, Carduelis, Spinus, Carduelinae, Siskins, Bolivia, Lapazensis, La Paz, Atrata, Xanthogastra, Stejnegeri, Fringillinae, Fringilidae, Notata, Andes, Ecuador, Peru, Bird.