Molecular Systematics, Taxonomy and Distribution of the Pyrrhura PictaLeucotis Complex

Thomas Arndt1, *, Michael Wink2
1 Brueckenfeldstr. 28, 75015 Bretten, Germany
2 Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany

© 2017 Arndt and Wink.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Brueckenfeldstr. 28, 75015 Bretten, Germany; Tel: (+49) 7252 97073-10; Fax: (+49)-7252-97073-25; E-mail:



The relationships within the Pyrrhura species complex are partly unresolved. In this study, a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Pyrrhura picta-leucotis complex was carried out, covering all species except P. subandina.

Material and Methods:

We made a morphological analysis of 745 preserved specimens of all the taxa in different museums. Nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome gene were generated and used to reconstruct a molecular phylogeny of Pyrrhura.

Results and Discussion:

Our results show that the complex is divided into 6 main groups comprising 15 species. P. dilutissima, regarded up to now as a subspecies of P. peruviana, acquires species status and three new subspecies are described. We also provide evidence that P. roseifrons is a paraphyletic group, indicating the existence of probably 3 lineages of which 2 deserve species status.