What Might have been the Ancestor of New World Siskins?

Antonio Arnaiz-Villena*, Valentin Ruiz-del-Valle, Raquel Reguera, Pablo Gomez-Prieto, Juan Ignacio Serrano-Vela
Department of Immunology, University Complutense and The Madrid Regional Blood Center, Madrid, Spain

© 2008 Arnaiz-Villena et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Departamento de Inmunologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avenida Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrird, Spain; Tel: +34 91 301 7354; Fax: +34 91 301 7213; E-mail:


Eurasian Carduelis spinus (siskin) has given rise to the C.pinus (pine siskin) North American radiation,which includes C.dominicensis, C.p. perplexus and C.atriceps .

It is addressed the question why C.spinus is not thriving now in America.